We estimate there are about 30,000 people in the nation who play somewhat regularly: in formal clubs, public parks, campgrounds, etc... Or in their backyard.
There are now (2017) around 53 clubs, part of
FPUSA - the Federation of Petanque USA
, the official US body affiliated with the International Petanque Federation.
FPUSA counts around 2100 members, organizes regional and national tournaments, as well as the qualifiers for the US National Team.
And here's a:
Directory of clubs, groups and petanque terrains in the USA